3. GEOTECHNICAL PROCESS OF DEWATERING AND TREATMENT OF SUBSTRATA


3.1 General

These processes cover the application of a number of established methods to facilitate foundation construction in difficult ground conditions, and include: ground water lowering, injection of grouts into the ground to change its physical characteristics, compaction and freezing the ground water.

3.2 Exclusion of water


Methods:

     (a) Open drains with sumps and pumps to keep out surface water.

     (b) Cut-offs to limit water entry.

     (c) Well points.

     (d) Ground freezing.

     (e) Deep wells.

     (f) Injection of chemicals.